Whittle’s Gait Analysis - formerly known as Gait Analysis: an introduction - is now in its fifth edition with a new team of authors led by David Levine and Jim Richards. Working closely with Michael Whittle, the team maintains a clear and accessible approach to basic gait. 3D gait analysis provides reliable data, however, is currently in limited use due INTRODUCTION Every limb in our body has agonist and antagonist muscles. "Whittle's Gait Analysis is a basic introduction to this topic. Download: WHITTLE'S GAIT ANALYSIS, 5E FROM BRAND: CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE PDF.
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Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below. Gait Analysis: An Introduction focuses on the systematic study of human walking and its contributions in the medical management of diseases affecting the. Gait analysis is the systematic study of human walking. Most of the literature in this field is highly specialized and very technical. This book, however, aims to.
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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Acknowledgements Preface 1. Basic Sciences Anatomy Physiology Biomechanics 2. Normal Ranges for Gait Parameters 2. Conversions Between Measurement Units 3. Computer Program for General Gait Parameters 4. English Copyright: Powered by. Normal walking of a person can be depicted from the below figure: Fig. During these phases activities like heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, toe off, midswing, heel strike occurs.
Acceleration of the foot followed by declaration is seen when a person is walking. Abnormal walking may be due to improper co-ordination between joints and limbs resulting normal walking phases are completed properly. Improper co-ordination can be occurred right from birth [seen in cerebral palsy patients], or due to aging effect in humans.
Analyzing this movement and generating meaningful results out of it comes under gait analysis. To analyze these movements different researchers have taken different parameters into considerations. Some of the common parameter to be undertaken while performing gait analysis are calculation knee joint angles, ankle joint angle, hip joint angle, pressure points on the foot, shape analysis, etc. The results generated by taken into considerations the above parameters could in form of graphs, vector files or can be directly fed as a binary video in the database.
The result of gait analysis finds its applications in the fields of biomechanics; it helps an orthopedic physician to examine patients walking pattern and can prove helpful in diagnosis and recovery of the patient. The purpose of the conference was to produce evidence-based recommendations to assist a practitioners in managing gait examination and interpreting its results, and b administrators in defining appropriateness and remuneration .
Another major application of gait is used by sportspersons. It helps in analyzing proper angles and joint movements in every phase of running or walking. Changes in running patterns are made to have maximum speed while running. Another upcoming application of gait is seen in the identification of humans or for security purposes. Every person can have their own unique walking patterns so storing them initially and using them afterward for identification of persons is attracting eyes of many researchers.
Recently people are aware of what is mean by gait and its importance. Since research on gait analysis was started in the 19th century, it has centered on identifying a different parameter that differentiates gait for applying them to various areas like in the clinical field, professional sports training, biometric identification and comparative biomechanics. Kinematic and kinetics these are two major gait parameter distributions. Kinematic involves the study of motions.
In the human motion, it is the study of the accelerations, velocities, angles, and positions of body segments and joints during movements.
Kinetic is a study of forces, energy, and power of joints during motion. Which parameter to be calculated is depended on the application. In many areas like a border crossing, airport, highly sensitive places and other public places strong need for high-security architecture. Recently deployed different identification methods but they cannot fulfill the modern security needs.
Traditional identification technologies are practically infeasible in some areas such as transportation places in metropolitan cities, critical authentication . For instance, for biometric identification is done by getting binary gait silhouette sequences of an authorized human.
However, in sports field, a research study may focus on forces and pressure exerted on muscles and joints movement during motion. The distribution is done in accordance with kinematic parameters and kinetic parameters. The gathering of movements can be done by various techniques.
The historical and previously used technique was using the naked human eye to watch a person walk and analyze information by it. But it is prone to high errors and is not an accurate nor an efficient way to capture gait cycle. The more efficient and accurate techniques include placing the markers on human joints and then capturing them using image processing, placing sensors that transmit data on the human body, beneath the human foot, etc.
Some techniques do not involve any kind of sensors and work on machine learning techniques. Wearable sensors Sensors which can record or transmit data are placed on required joints of the human body. The recording of data from sensors can result in a quantitative, continuous and efficient gait cycle.
Wearable sensors can make gait analysis system portable and can reduce the cumbersome cost of lab setup of gait analysis . Inertial sensors are kind of sensors which can record and transmit the relative movement of its position.
These sensors are can be place in different joints of the human body . The inertial sensor consists of gyroscope and accelerometer, which can transmit data. The data is stored in periodic histograms, which makes it easier to study. Apart from sensors; a questionnaire is been filled out by the person undergoing gait analysis, this helps the select particular joints on which sensors should be placed. Other than just inertial sensors other motion recording sensors [MRS] can also be used .
MRS can be placed on arms, hips, ankles.
The result is in graphical format with respect to time. A mobile consisting of accelerometer can also be used as a sensor to record joint data. Mobile is attached to trouser pocket position . As a person walks the accelerometer will record its log in a mobile application.
After performing noise cancellation on the logs, the gait cycle can be formed from the data of mobile accelerometer. Low-cost ultrasonic sensors can also be used for this purpose. Ultrasonic transmitter and receiver are used; the reference markers are placed on human body . The transmitter emits ultrasonic waves; these are reflected back from the reference marker on are caught by the receiver; thus the information of the human joint position is obtained.
The information gained is continuous and further analysis can be done on it. Textile sensor socks in one such sensor which can be worn . It consists of a textile pressure sensor which works like a pressure resistive sensor and it used for finding out pressure in that particular area.
Heel contact pressure areas can accurately be measured. Another approach is to use force plate inside the shoes in which the person is walking . The force plate consists of pressure resistive sensors on different parts.
The data received from force plates can be sent to another device for its analysis. Markers can be attached to joints like knee, ankle, hip, etc. These markers can be recognized using image processing techniques. Markers can be active as well as passive . Active markers specifically consist of light emitting diodes LED which emit light of their own to the capturing source camera. And passive markers are made of Scotchlite or radium which is light reflecting materials.
These passive markers reflect the incident light directly back to the capturing source camera. Non-wearable sensors Non-wearable sensor systems can be easy to use and more portable than sensor system.
But the accuracy and efficiency can be varied according to the technique used. Shape analysis can be done using silhouette extraction method . The background image is stored in the system; afterward during gait analysis, the background image is subtracted from the image recorded; this results in silhouette representation or shape representation of the human body.
The shape of the body can be obtained continuously and can further be stored and analyzed. This process does not require any sensor do be placed on the human body.
Haar classifier is pattern matching algorithm which works on a cascade file generated by positive and negative images. Positive images are the set of pattern to be matched and negative images are set of all possible images other than positive images. The positive images are superimposed on all negative images in all possible directions, forming a cascade file of the neural network.
The extraction of silhouette can make possible to determine the stride length of a walking person . According to that, one can also identify whether is a person is walking, running or jumping. Mean shift algorithm is used to analyze the speed and to determine the human movements. Kinect is widely used in the field of virtualization.
Kinect was first developed by Microsoft with the motivation of its applications in the field of virtual reality. It consists of ultrasonic and inertial sensors programmed together and the data is sent to other devices. By programming Kinect, it can be used to develop 3D virtual human body . By applying supervised learning approach to automatically and accurately extract lower and upper body gait parameters, a 3D virtual skeleton is prepared.
This can be formed by a person walking towards the Kinect; it can be online monitored and then notified whether gait cycle is normal or abnormal. The motion can be visualized and stride length and stride velocity can also be obtained. Another marker less system involves mathematical and machine learning techniques for identification of human joints . Initially, the height of a human is determined by silhouette extraction and then the position of different gait parameter like the knee, ankles, etc is determined.
General assumption that hip is situated at half of the human height, the knee is situated at three fourth of human height and ankle is situated at 90percent of human height is taken into consideration. After obtaining the position of various gait parameters, gait cycle consisting of angles can be generated.
But, this system can face problems during occlusion.
The floor is covered with floor sensors; it can record where the foot has been in contact and also measures pressure of the foot imparted on the floor. This data is sent is to other devices online. The floor sensor consists of a special type of piezo pressure resistive sensors.
The patient is indented to walk on this to generate the gait cycle. Pros and Cons All the techniques used for generating gait cycle both wearable sensor systems as well non-wearable sensor system has its own advantages and disadvantages. The inertial sensors are light weight by the also minute movements of person has a lot of noise in the results; so up to a certain extent accuracy is distorted .
The ultrasonic sensors and control board provide a continuous flow of information of stride angles, but one needs to have basic information of operating ultrasonic sensors. The faceplate in textile socks sensors or shoes provide quite accurate results of the heel contact area; but that not the complete gait analysis. The practices currently ongoing in most of the gait lab use one of the above wearable sensor techniques, as results are quite correct.
These techniques are mostly used for further applications of gait analysis like human identification.
This techniques mostly need advanced machine learning algorithms like support vector machines; to identify the gait cycle. The major objective of these techniques is to identify the gait parameter while a person is walking.