Crystallizing public opinion by edward l.bernays pdf


    Books by EDWARD L. BERNAYS. CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION (). AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS (). (Edited and contributed to). PROPAGANDA . Bernays Edward L. miforohynua.tkioned: mimetype: application/pdf Crystallizing Public Opinion. Books by EDWARD L. BERN AYS CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION () AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS () {Edited and contributed to) PROPAGANDA.

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    Crystallizing Public Opinion By Edward L.bernays Pdf

    CRYSTALLIZING. PUBLIC OPINION. - wid.. Books by EDWARD L. BERNAYS. CRYSTALLIZING PUBLIC OPINION (). AN OUTLINE OF CAREERS (). Bernays had more to do with developing acceptance of PR and public relations Edward L. Bernays. Crystall izing Pu blic Opinion. N. Y: Boni and. Liveright,. Inc., . how public. Opinion is crystallized into desired action, ELB says. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Mr. Bernays was one of the first people to expand what had been a Crystallizing Public Opinion by [Bernays, Edward L.].

    Nov 10, Dan rated it liked it This book was hard to rate for me because it was both fascinating and surprising, but also kind of boring. I think it's because there was quite a bit of repetition. Edward Bernays is known as "the father of public relations" so this book, written in , was really one of the earliest descriptions of the relatively new job of "public relations counsel. When I first heard about this book I thought it was going to be more about the dark side of PR, such as using propaganda and sneaky tactics to brainwash people into thinking what you want them to. Bernays does have a book called "Propaganda" which I haven't read, but this book wasn't at all what I initially thought it would be. Bernays' main point, at least it seemed to me, was the idea that the PR professional needs to "create news" to get people talking about whatever it is his client wants to sell or promote. He describes two theories about how people think. One is that people are stubborn and can't have their minds changed. The other theory is that people are malleable and can be made to think whatever you want them to. He says that the truth lies between the two theories and that the PR professional's main value to his client is to figure out how to make the message appealing to all types of people. Bernays' uncle was Sigmund Freud so he mixes in quite a bit about human psychology, especially about our tendency to form "herds" and "bandwagons. People don't have time or the drive to research every single opinion so it's easier to find someone they trust and then fall in line with their leader's opinions.

    Bernays' uncle was Sigmund Freud so he mixes in quite a bit about human psychology, especially about our tendency to form "herds" and "bandwagons. People don't have time or the drive to research every single opinion so it's easier to find someone they trust and then fall in line with their leader's opinions.

    From the book and also the long introduction at the beginning it sounds like Bernays was very high and mighty as he essentially sorts people into the smart people and the stupid people.

    It's the smart people, of which there are very few, who have the responsibility of keeping things running and molding peoples' minds to go along with the program. Here is a quote from the introduction about Bernays: "He expressed little respect for the average person's ability to think out, understand, or act upon the world in which they live Bernays then sketched a picture of the public relations expert as a member of the 'intellegent few' who advises clients on how to 'deal with the masses It is safer to hire a press agent who stands between the group and the newspapers.

    These judgments are the tools of his daily being and yet they are his judgments, not on a basis of research and logical deduction, but for the most part dogmatic expressions accepted on the authority of his parents, his teachers, his church, and of his social, his economic, and other leaders. The rational method adequately used would have told him that on the great majority of these questions there could be for him but one attitude - that of suspended judgement.

    He went to his physician and found that a heavy breakfast was sounder from the standpoint of health than a light breakfast because the body loses energy during the night and needs it during the day. He asked the physician if he would be willing, at no cost, to write 5, physicians and ask them whether their judgement was the same as his—confirming his judgement.

    About 4, answered back, all concurring that a more significant breakfast was better for the health of the American people than a light breakfast. He arranged for this finding to be published in newspapers throughout the country with headlines like '4, physicians urge bigger breakfast'. In addition to the theories of his uncle, Bernays used those of Ivan Pavlov.

    Bernays Crystallizing Public Opinion

    PR industry historian Scott Cutlip describes Bernays as "perhaps the most fabulous and fascinating individual in public relations, a man who was bright, articulate to excess, and most of all, an innovative thinker and philosopher of this vocation that was in its infancy when he opened his office in New York in June ". Bernays used the " Freudian theory " to deal with the public's conception of communism, as he believed that we should not be easing the public's fear of communism , but rather promote that fear and play with the public's emotions of it.

    This theory was so powerful that it became a weapon of its own during the Cold War. Philosophy and public relations Bernays's papers, opened at his death in , contain a wealth of information on the founding of the field in the twenties.

    Bernays contains an overview of the decade. Many of the essays selected for the Coolidge-Consumerism collection from the Bernays Papers were written as early drafts for The Biography of an Idea. He had very pronounced views on the differences between what he did and what people in advertising did. A pivotal figure in the orchestration of elaborate corporate advertising campaigns and multi-media consumer spectacles, he nevertheless is among those listed in the acknowledgments section of the seminal government social science study "Recent Social Trends in the United States" The Bernays essays "A Public Relations Counsel States His Views" and " This Business of Propaganda " show that Bernays regarded advertising men as special pleaders, merely paid to persuade people to accept an idea or commodity.

    The public relations counsel, on the other hand, he saw as an Emersonian -like creator of events that dramatized new concepts and perceptions, and even influenced the actions of leaders and groups in society. However, it is doubtful that transcendentalist Emerson, enamored as he was with the spiritual traditions of India and their denunciation of materialism—and promotion of a simplified "inward" existence instead—would have found Bernays and his efforts on behalf of corporations appealing.

    Bernays's vision was of a utopian society in which individuals' dangerous libidinal energies, the psychic and emotional energy associated with instinctual biological drives that Bernays viewed as inherently dangerous given his observation of societies like the Germans under Hitler , could be harnessed and channeled by a corporate elite for economic benefit.

    The literature of the classical de oc today, and the earlier concept was far more limited Greeks, of Homer, Hesiod and others praised their than the contemporary one. The individual had leaders and the glory of Greek history and stimu- not yet developed a sense of personal identity. He lated the loyalty of the people to their rulers. N b, was not treated as an individual.

    Crystallizing Public Opinion

    Leaders ruled State coinage, said to have originated in Lydia is by magic, taboos, super-naturalism and force. Business transactions now be- C rulers were aware of their publics.

    Proclaiming came much simpler than they had been when the divinity of kings was a step of the first impor- cattle, raw metals, weapons, and a wide variety tance in gaining the worshipful obedience of sub- of other objects were used as media of exchange. The Pan- of slaves, spreading throughout the Mediterra- hellenic festivals provided an opportunity for nean area, enabled enterprising individuals to bet- exchanging opinion, bringing together various ter their economic status.

    This was an influential tribes and races of Greece. With the increase in the ion. And, through late Greek and Roman times, fc status and power of the individual came a refusal 01 to accept blindly the untrammelled authority of this continued as the most powerful instrument S nobility and the pronouncements of religion.

    CI The struggle against aristocracy, tyranny, and Pericles further stimulated this free play of j, opinion. He instituted the principle of publicity mystical cults was aided by the use of the Greek C weapons of publicity and persuasion.

    Following his death, rival r parties resorted to this practice for every kind of j their media of appeal differed radically from those I of modern times. The chief prerequisite of this popular appeal and to gain a political following publicity was the fact that an urban civilization among the masses. The theatre was second only to oratory as an The strong tendency towards that religious ra- influence in developing opinions of the Athenian tionalism which centuries later was called secular- public.

    The populace was given to conservatism, ism, at a very early stage of Greek civilization identifying itself unreservedly with the dramatic produced a sceptical attitude towards the pro- events enacted on the stage.

    Tragedy carried out nouncement of seers. Comedy, In the Western part of Greece, a struggle for less choked by tradition, produced popular plays political independence took place. Villages were and satiric portraits of leaders. Public opinion surrounded by protecting walls. In Rome, while an illiterate, scattered peasantry By Cicero's time the technique of supplying existed, there was little opportunity to influence news to interested parties had developed into a r public opinion save by the traditional Greek ora- specialized activity.

    Official publications de- torical method.

    The Republic, ruled by patricians, was Roman Senate and Assembly. But in S9 B. But this term ap- Julius Caesar decreed that it should be published a pearing on buildings and elsewhere made the peo- and made available to the public.

    Rome, suggesting a far greater advance of de- This included such matters as Emperor's decrees mocracy in the past than existed. Later the Romans introduced new tech- phenomena of nature. While all this material had d niques of persuasion. By the time of Julius Cae- little direct bearing on the character of political a life, it was a considerable factor in shaping public sar, pamphlet literature began to occupy a place never held in Greece.

    Politicians and statesmen opirnon. The importance of news as a tool to Rumores, vox populi, res publicae, are words that shape popular points of view developed in the indicate the importance of the public in the deci- highly organized and centralized Roman Empire.

    The commentaries The magnificent system of roads and waterways of Julius Caesar furnish an example of history facilitated the li:"athering of information about po- as a tool of public relations.

    Vogelweide, most noted of the medieval German When the Roman Empire fell, and the center poets, a loyal adherent of the Emperor Frederick of civilization shifted northward, the urban cul- II. This eliminated the prerequisites sermons and satires.

    These were the rapid rise for a public opinion capable of being wooed and of cities, which set in during the closing centuries won by leaders. These circumstances allowed of the medieval period, and the invention of print- much greater play to the forces of custom and ing, which opened the way to mass publicity. Ideas were communicated largely When Luther and his adherents brought about through the songs and recitations of wandering the Reformation, the printing of pamphlets and minstrels.

    There was little attempt to play on or their reprinting became an obvious method of arouse sympathies of a scattered population. The reaching an entire nation, even in its remotest Church took the lead in setting the patterns of quarters.

    Luther published over treatises thought of its followers. Only when the controversy between the Ger- A growing realization of the importance of manic emperors and the Papacy arose do we find public opinion and the role of propaganda in in- a re-awakening and re-use of direct methods of fluencing it was evidenced by books containing persuasion and suggestion through the written sermons, dialogues and letters sometimes illus- word.

    In France the Gazette was established in abroad, reflecting the need of the early capitalistic under Richelieu's sponsorship. Most of enterprises for comprehensive and active news. In these early papers were filled with intelligence some cases a special professional group assumed from abroad.

    Domestic news, if any, was usually m the function of supplying this information. Thus o By the end of the roth Century such manuscript journalism was born, an influential factor in the e p bulletins became familiar in Germany and Italy.

    During the early years of the 17th Century they In the Renaissance, a new respect for reason f began to be printed and made more generally and the right of every human being to investigate c available.

    Crystallizing Public Opinion by Edward Bernays (, Paperback) for sale online | eBay

    The first known newsletter was issued nature and society independently, gave individual s in by the Fugger family, originally estab- opinion much greater opportunity for development lished in the 15th Century by Jacob Fugger of and expression.

    Public opinion became more j Augsburg. The Fuggers had extensive trade powerful. The Reformation that went with the connections throughout the civilized world, and Renaissance stressed the rights of individual con- possessed one of the largest fortunes in Europe.

    In turn this bolstered individual opinion They were vigorous opponents of the Reforma- and the collective voice of the people, and created tion, spent vast sums in support of the Church, lent awareness of the importance of good relations and gave money to the impoverished treasuries of with the public. Machiavelli spoke of publica tenants at low rents. These latter activities were, voce, the equivalent of the vox populi of Rome. Shakespeare, a century after Machiavelli, Others followed the examples of the Fuggers was keenly aware of the power of community in issuing newsletters, and they spread rapidly thought, his Henry V talked of that ,iopinion that through the country and laid the basis for a.

    In opposition to the Reformation, the ganda tools were used in the struggles for political Church launched the Counter-Reformation. This and religious liberty. John Lilburne, an early was accompanied by appeals to opinion which for pioneer in this movement and leader of the Level- the first time were called "propaganda. Faith , to found seminaries and print catechisms Until licenses were required to publish and other religious works in foreign countries.

    With the expiration of Subsequently, Pope Urban VIII the Licensing Act in that year, freedom of the founded the College of Propaganda to educate press was inaugurated which gave even a broader priests.

    Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Almost simultaneously, the publication of Faith to spread Catholicism the world over.

    Enactment of literacy and many social changes that produced a a budget obviously meant placing a tax burden on closer relationship between people. Parliamentary approval depended on about the importance of the masses. In France, the reaction of the more influential citizenry.

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